Lung disease. Lung disease refers to disorders that affect the lungs, the organs that allow us to breathe. Lung disease is a major concern for women. The number of U.S. women diagnosed with lung disease is on the rise. Lung disease can result from problems in any part of this system. Lung Diseases Affecting the Airways. The trachea (windpipe) branches into tubes called bronchi, which in turn branch to become progressively smaller tubes throughout the lungs. Diseases that affect the airways include: Asthma: The airways are persistently inflamed, and may . Interstitial lung disease, or ILD, Pneumococcal disease can be acquired by anyone, but children younger than age 2, adults ages 65 and older.